354 TEANSMUTATIOH OF 1ETTEES. been transmuted into modern Hindi more by the gradual loss of its inflections than by the violent operation of any external influences." Thus the recogni- tion of Persian or any dialect of Persian as the vernacular of the country implies an historical untruth as regards the past, and can only be verified is the future by the obliteration of all existing traditions. THE following list shows the changes of most frequent occurrence in the conversion of Sanskrit words into Hindi:— 1. a -f «, after the elision of a consonant, generally becomes au or ao; thus from pada we have pdoy or; by insertion of a nasal, pdnw ; from rdjd, rdo ; from tdta, i father/ tdu; fromghdta, 'a wound/ ghdu; and from taduga, ' a pond' (itself derived from tata, a slope)3 taldo. So too in the Bamayana Rama occa- sionally appears in the form Itdu. 2. Not unfreouently, however, a-fa becomes e: thus from badara, the jujube, we have her; and from kadala, a plantain, Ma. A similar substitution of e for d takes place in semal, the cotton-tree, for sdlmali; in sej, a couch, for saya ; and in terah, thirteen, for trayodasa. 3. Conversely e 4- a is sometimes made equivalent to a-fa: thus deva, after elision of the v, becomes ddu. 4. l>h becomes A; thus from abJiira comes aMr} and from TirabhuUi^ ihe nam© of a country, Tirhdt, 5. cJi is elided : thus sdcM, c a needle/ becomes «t^'. 6. dJi becomes h: thus from ladhira, (deaf/ we have lahira; from madhuJca, ' the Bassia latifolia/ mahua ; from vadhu, ' a female relation/ bahu ; and, in the B^mayanaj for krodM, 'angry/ Jcohi. So too the possessive affix- dhdra becomes Mra. 7. d occasionally becomes I; thus from lhadra, 'good/ after elision of the conjunct r, we have Ihctla. This I again may be changed into r: thus from Yidarbha, the name of a country, comes Bir&r. 8. k is elided : thus vardhaM, ' a carpenter/ becomes larhai; vrischika, *• a scorpion/ MeJihua; and ^kara7 ca pig/ ssfor. 9. & may also become h: thus in the Mmayana aUJia stands for aZl&a, 4 false.' So also AA; thus mukhay after insertion of the nasal, becomes munh. 10. ! in a conjunct is elided : thus valfafa, * the bark of a tree/ becomes Occasioaally also simple I; as in okhla, f a mortar/ for ulukhala.